Working with Linux for Basic Operations & Logging in and out

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This section tells you, how to interact with Linux Shell for basic operations, logging in, logging out with most essential commands.

The linux operating system  can be used either in a terminal mode where you type commands or in a Windows Explorer style graphical user interface (GUI).


Working with Linux for Basic Operations & Logging in and out


Logging in
Once you have completed your system install and booted your system, you should see a login prompt on your monitor. Therefore to log in, you have to type the name of a user or "root" for the login name and enter the appropriate password which was created during the installation.

Basic operation in Linux OS with commands
Remember a few things that apply to all Linux commands.

1. All Linux commands must always be entered in small case letters
2. There should be a space between the command, options and arguments (Command [options] [arguments]).

For example, shutdown -h now, where "Shutdown" is the command, "-h" is the option which is usually preceded by a single or double minus sign. Two or more options available with command can usually be combined, for example, the command "ls –l –a" is same as "ls –la".

3. If you make a typing mistake, press backspace to erase characters Don’t try back using arrow keys and then attempt deleting using the del key
4. To cancel the entire command before you press Enter, press ctrl+c Or backspace key

To learn more about the available options of each command, Use "man" program to get additional information of the command, for example, man ls.
Logging out
Use the command "logout" to exit a logged in session.

Shutting Down or Rebooting
The system is intended to be shutdown by the system administrator using the shutdown command in one of the forms shown below. Many systems are set up to capture the <CTRL><ALT><DEL> keystroke combination to issue the shutdown command through the init program. This will work on most systems if the root user is logged in.

Examples of using the shutdown command are shown below.
shutdown -h now
shutdown -r +10 "Rebooting in 10 minutes"
shutdown -r 13:00
The first command will shutdown and halt the system immediately. The second will reboot the system in 10 minutes and send the message to all users. The third command will shut the system down and do a reboot at 1:00 in the afternoon

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November 25, 2015

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